Home

Premium fuel octane

Premium vs 87 Octane Fuel: Premium for Mazda3?!? - YouTube

The main difference between fuel grades is the octane number. Regular fuel has a lower octane number (87 is common), while premium generally nets a 91 octane rating or higher First of all, premium gas has a higher octane rating, an important factor in helping prevent engine knock or pinging. Depending on where you live, this premium-grade fuel could be 90 octane, 91..

Why You Might Not Actually Need Premium Gas - Consumer Reports

Our premium fuels typically have pump octanes of 91-93. Regulars are 87 octane; midgrades, 89. By the way, Europeans and their owners manuals often state octane recommendations solely in.. ..been debating the use of premium vs. regular fuel and the merits of high vs. low octane fuel. • High octane gasoline burns slower than low octane gasoline. The slow burn prevents engine knock.. Octane numbers, ethanol content and diesel get thrown in the mix, while TV commercials shout about special cleaning additives and better fuel economy. What's a motorist to do? Is premium fuel worth.. Most premium fuel has a rating of 90 octane or higher. Octane is important when it comes to powering vehicles while preventing knocking. When gasoline and air ignite before they should, it causes an..

VP Racing Fuels VPF2837 Octanium Octane Booster (32 fl. Been turned on to Race Gas additives after Dragon Racing Fuel in my area became Outlaw and they no longer carry a product like this In these cases, a higher octane fuel helps resist engine knock and allows the engine to operate closer to its normal conditions rather than detuning to prevent engine knock. Australia: regular unleaded fuel is 91 RON, premium unleaded with 95 RON is widely available The premium petrols are generally ordinary fuels with additives, that do not really change the octane..

Premium gas sounds like it's something special, but it translates into paying extra for a higher octane without any performance or fuel-economy benefits for many cars Premium fuel will feature additional additives but will not bring any significant performance benefits unless it has been calibrated to perform with higher octane Higher octane fuel is not necessarily better for your car. Premium gas costs 15 to 20 cents per gallon more than regular. That can add up to $100 or more a year in extra costs Prakash, A., Jones, A., Nelson, E., Macias, J. et al. 2013. Octane Response of Premium-Recommended Vehicles. SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0883, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0883. Vortex Premium 98 is our highest octane rating Premium Unleaded Petrol, designed to meet the requirements of the latest engine technologies through Caltex's unique advanced additive formulation

High Octane Premium Fuel - Do They Work

Dyno Testing Premium Fuel - Octane Level vs Performance - Shell

octane fuel-repo-restore --from=/path/to/repo-backup.file.tar.gz. Upgrade Fuel Master node. Copy backup files to a new node from the secure location. Use octane to restore Fuel configuration and.. Premium Fuel : Premium Petrol and Diesel Myth in India. Date: May 22, 2013. Higher Octane leads to higher combustion and energy transformed. Its general rule that burning fuel with a lower octane.. Torco Accelerator Fuel Additive/Octane Booster. Significantly raises the octane of premium fuel With their Max-Boost octane booster and stabilizer, you're capable of bumping your fuels current.. When I put premium fuel the engine runs smooth, gas mileage is better as well as power and acceleration. Then why does Toyota/ Scion recommend 87 octane when it runs like crap Higher octane fuels are often required or recommended for engines that use a higher compression ratio and/or use supercharging or turbocharging to force more air into the engine. Increasing pressure in the cylinder allows an engine to extract more mechanical energy from a given air/fuel mixture but requires higher octane fuel to keep the mixture from pre-detonating. In these engines, high octane fuel will improve performance and fuel economy.

Video: Selecting the Right Octane Fuel

I dont know what the husky 94 really is but in the US if you real 94 octane fuel with 10% ethanol its going to make more power than 91 without hands down.. Now if you wanted a better fuel and you have your heart set on alcohol mix E85 into premium pump gas to get 10% alcohol by volume and then you would have a.. Premium fuel? Discussion in '3rd Gen. i looked on here and google for some results but there isn't much information regarding premium fuel In the 3.5l Atkinson... does this motor benefit or enjoy.. Reference #18.464f655f.1589005666.38d17da6 Putting Premium Gas in an Engine That Requires Regular? Stop It Now - The New York Times [data-timezone] { display: none } .css-6n7j50{display:inline;}.css-vz7hjd{border:0;-webkit-clip:rect(0 0 0 0);clip:rect(0 0 0 0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px;}.css-1fe7a5q{display:inline-block;height:16px;vertical-align:sub;width:16px;}.css-1f8er69{border:0;-webkit-clip:rect(0 0 0 0);clip:rect(0 0 0 0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px;border-radius:3px;cursor:pointer;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;-webkit-transition:ease 0.6s;transition:ease 0.6s;white-space:nowrap;vertical-align:middle;background-color:transparent;color:#000;font-size:11px;line-height:11px;font-weight:700;-webkit-letter-spacing:0.02em;-moz-letter-spacing:0.02em;-ms-letter-spacing:0.02em;letter-spacing:0.02em;padding:11px 12px 8px;background:#fff;display:inline-block;left:44px;text-transform:uppercase;-webkit-transition:none;transition:none;}.css-1f8er69:active,.css-1f8er69:focus{-webkit-clip:auto;clip:auto;overflow:visible;width:auto;height:auto;}.css-1f8er69::-moz-focus-inner{padding:0;border:0;}.css-1f8er69:-moz-focusring{outline:1px dotted;}.css-1f8er69:disabled,.css-1f8er69.disabled{opacity:0.5;cursor:default;}.css-1f8er69:active,.css-1f8er69.active{background-color:#f7f7f7;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1f8er69:hover{background-color:#f7f7f7;}}.css-1f8er69:focus{margin-top:3px;padding:8px 8px 6px;}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-1f8er69{left:112px;}}.css-10488qs{display:none;}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-10488qs{display:inline-block;position:relative;}}.css-nuvmzp{font-size:14.25px;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-weight:700;text-transform:uppercase;-webkit-letter-spacing:0.7px;-moz-letter-spacing:0.7px;-ms-letter-spacing:0.7px;letter-spacing:0.7px;line-height:19px;}.css-nuvmzp:hover{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-1k0lris{color:#326891;height:12px;margin-left:8px;padding-left:8px;}.css-2bwtzy{display:inline-block;padding:6px 4px 4px;margin-bottom:12px;font-size:12px;border-radius:3px;-webkit-transition:background 0.6s ease;transition:background 0.6s ease;}.css-2bwtzy:hover{background-color:#f7f7f7;}.css-1ropbjl::before{background-color:$white;border-bottom:1px solid #e2e2e2;border-top:2px solid #e2e2e2;content:'';display:block;height:1px;margin-top:0;}@media (min-width:1150px){.css-1ropbjl{margin:0 auto;max-width:1200px;padding:0 3% 9px;}}.NYTApp .css-1ropbjl{display:none;}@media print{.css-1ropbjl{display:none;}}.css-15uy5yv{border-top:1px solid #ebebeb;padding-top:9px;}.css-jq1cx6{color:#666;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;padding:10px 0;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;white-space:nowrap;}.css-jq1cx6:hover{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-d8bdto{color:#999;display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-flex-shrink:0;-ms-flex-negative:0;flex-shrink:0;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-size:17px;margin-bottom:5px;}@media print{.css-d8bdto{display:none;}}.css-y8aj3r{padding:0;}.css-60hakz{color:#999;display:inline;margin-right:16px;padding:10px 0;width:100%;}.css-60hakz a{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}@media (max-width:659px){.css-60hakz:nth-of-type(3),.css-60hakz:nth-of-type(4){display:none;}}.css-60hakz:last-of-type{margin-right:0;}.css-1baulvz{display:inline-block;}.css-i49r68{-webkit-flex-shrink:1;-ms-flex-negative:1;flex-shrink:1;padding-right:1rem;}.css-4xjgmj{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-flex-shrink:0;-ms-flex-negative:0;flex-shrink:0;}.css-1tel06d{display:none;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1tel06d{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;width:16px;height:31px;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-1tel06d{display:none;}}@media print{.css-1tel06d{display:none;}}.css-12fr9lp{height:23px;margin-top:6px;}.css-18z7m18{display:none;}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-18z7m18{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;margin-top:0;}}@media print{.css-18z7m18{display:block;}}.css-k008qs{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;}.css-1aor85t{display:none;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1aor85t{position:fixed;display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;opacity:0;z-index:1;-webkit-transition:all 0.2s ease-in-out;transition:all 0.2s ease-in-out;width:100%;height:32.063px;background:white;padding:5px 0;top:0;text-align:center;font-family:nyt-cheltenham,georgia,'times new roman',times,serif;box-shadow:rgba(0,0,0,0.08) 0 0 5px 1px;border-bottom:1px solid #e2e2e2;}}@media print{.css-1aor85t{position:relative;border:none;display:inline-block;opacity:1 !important;visibility:visible !important;}}.css-1hqnpie{margin-left:20px;margin-right:20px;max-width:1605px;display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-flex-direction:column;-ms-flex-direction:column;flex-direction:column;position:relative;width:100%;}@media (min-width:1360px){.css-1hqnpie{margin-left:20px;margin-right:20px;}}@media (min-width:1780px){.css-1hqnpie{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;}}@media print{.css-1hqnpie{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}.css-epjblv{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-flex-direction:row;-ms-flex-direction:row;flex-direction:row;max-width:1605px;overflow:hidden;position:absolute;width:56%;margin-left:calc((100% - 56%) / 2);}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-epjblv{width:53%;margin-left:calc((100% - 53%) / 2);}}@media print{.css-epjblv{display:none;}}.css-fwqvlz{font-family:nyt-cheltenham-small,georgia,'times new roman';font-weight:400;font-size:13px;-webkit-letter-spacing:0.015em;-moz-letter-spacing:0.015em;-ms-letter-spacing:0.015em;letter-spacing:0.015em;margin-top:10.5px;margin-right:auto;white-space:nowrap;overflow:hidden;text-overflow:ellipsis;}.css-17xtcya{font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-weight:700;font-size:12.5px;text-transform:uppercase;-webkit-letter-spacing:0;-moz-letter-spacing:0;-ms-letter-spacing:0;letter-spacing:0;margin-top:12.5px;margin-bottom:auto;margin-left:auto;white-space:nowrap;}.css-17xtcya:hover{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-x15j1o{display:inline-block;padding-left:7px;padding-right:7px;font-size:13px;margin-top:10px;margin-bottom:auto;color:#ccc;}.css-1705lsu{margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;margin-left:auto;background-color:#fff;z-index:50;box-shadow:-14px 2px 7px -2px rgba(255,255,255,0.7);}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1iwv8en{margin-top:1px;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-1iwv8en{margin-top:0;}}.css-1n6z4y{font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;color:#ccc !important;border-left:1px solid #ccc;margin-left:10px;padding:10px;display:none;}@media print{.css-1n6z4y{display:inline-block;}}.css-1g7m0tk{color:#326891;}.css-1g7m0tk:visited{color:#326891;}@-webkit-keyframes animation-f8wsfj{0%{opacity:1;}50%{opacity:0;}100%{opacity:0;}}@keyframes animation-f8wsfj{0%{opacity:1;}50%{opacity:0;}100%{opacity:0;}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-mhvv8m{0%{opacity:0;}50%{opacity:0;}100%{opacity:1;}}@keyframes animation-mhvv8m{0%{opacity:0;}50%{opacity:0;}100%{opacity:1;}}.css-79elbk{position:relative;}@-webkit-keyframes animation-1mksj48{from{opacity:0;-webkit-transform:translate3d(100%,0,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(100%,0,0);transform:translate3d(100%,0,0);}to{opacity:1;-webkit-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);transform:translate3d(0,0,0);}}@keyframes animation-1mksj48{from{opacity:0;-webkit-transform:translate3d(100%,0,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(100%,0,0);transform:translate3d(100%,0,0);}to{opacity:1;-webkit-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);transform:translate3d(0,0,0);}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-1m9j9gf{from{background-color:#f7f7f5;}to{background-color:transparent;}}@keyframes animation-1m9j9gf{from{background-color:#f7f7f5;}to{background-color:transparent;}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-m6999o{100%{-webkit-transform:rotate(360deg);-ms-transform:rotate(360deg);transform:rotate(360deg);-webkit-transform-origin:center;-ms-transform-origin:center;transform-origin:center;}}@keyframes animation-m6999o{100%{-webkit-transform:rotate(360deg);-ms-transform:rotate(360deg);transform:rotate(360deg);-webkit-transform-origin:center;-ms-transform-origin:center;transform-origin:center;}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-5j8bii{from{opacity:0;}to{opacity:1;}}@keyframes animation-5j8bii{from{opacity:0;}to{opacity:1;}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-1q1yk17{to{width:11px;}}@keyframes animation-1q1yk17{to{width:11px;}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-g7rb99{0%{-webkit-transform:scale(1) rotate(0);-ms-transform:scale(1) rotate(0);transform:scale(1) rotate(0);}100%{-webkit-transform:scale(1.05) rotate(-90deg);-ms-transform:scale(1.05) rotate(-90deg);transform:scale(1.05) rotate(-90deg);}}@keyframes animation-g7rb99{0%{-webkit-transform:scale(1) rotate(0);-ms-transform:scale(1) rotate(0);transform:scale(1) rotate(0);}100%{-webkit-transform:scale(1.05) rotate(-90deg);-ms-transform:scale(1.05) rotate(-90deg);transform:scale(1.05) rotate(-90deg);}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-b7n1on{0%{-webkit-transform:rotate(0deg);-ms-transform:rotate(0deg);transform:rotate(0deg);}100%{-webkit-transform:rotate(360deg);-ms-transform:rotate(360deg);transform:rotate(360deg);}}@keyframes animation-b7n1on{0%{-webkit-transform:rotate(0deg);-ms-transform:rotate(0deg);transform:rotate(0deg);}100%{-webkit-transform:rotate(360deg);-ms-transform:rotate(360deg);transform:rotate(360deg);}}.css-1sy8kpn{display:none;}@media (min-width:765px){.css-1sy8kpn{background-color:#f7f7f7;border-bottom:1px solid #f3f3f3;display:block;padding-bottom:15px;padding-top:15px;margin:0;min-height:90px;}}@media print{.css-1sy8kpn{display:none;}}.css-l9onyx{color:#ccc;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-size:0.5625rem;font-weight:300;-webkit-letter-spacing:0.05rem;-moz-letter-spacing:0.05rem;-ms-letter-spacing:0.05rem;letter-spacing:0.05rem;line-height:0.5625rem;margin-bottom:9px;text-align:center;text-transform:uppercase;}.sizeSmall .css-bsn42l{width:50%;}@media (min-width:600px){.sizeSmall .css-bsn42l{width:300px;}}@media (min-width:1440px){.sizeSmall .css-bsn42l{width:300px;}}@media (max-width:600px){.sizeSmall .css-bsn42l{width:50%;}}.sizeSmall.sizeSmallNoCaption .css-bsn42l{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;}@media (min-width:740px){.sizeSmall.layoutVertical .css-bsn42l{max-width:250px;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.sizeSmall.layoutVertical .css-bsn42l{width:250px;}}@media (max-width:740px){.sizeSmall.layoutVertical .css-bsn42l{max-width:250px;}}@media (min-width:740px){.sizeSmall.layoutHorizontal .css-bsn42l{max-width:300px;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.sizeSmall.layoutHorizontal .css-bsn42l{width:300px;}}@media (max-width:740px){.sizeSmall.layoutHorizontal .css-bsn42l{max-width:300px;}}@media (min-width:600px){.sizeMedium.layoutVertical.verticalVideo .css-bsn42l{width:310px;}}.css-11cwn6f{width:100%;vertical-align:top;}.css-11cwn6f img{width:100%;vertical-align:top;}.css-z3e15g{position:fixed;opacity:0;-webkit-scroll-events:none;-moz-scroll-events:none;-ms-scroll-events:none;scroll-events:none;top:0;left:0;bottom:0;right:0;-webkit-transition:opacity 0.2s;transition:opacity 0.2s;background-color:#fff;pointer-events:none;}@-webkit-keyframes animation-1b9egsl{0%{-webkit-transform:rotate(20deg);-ms-transform:rotate(20deg);transform:rotate(20deg);}100%{-webkit-transform:rotate(380deg);-ms-transform:rotate(380deg);transform:rotate(380deg);}}@keyframes animation-1b9egsl{0%{-webkit-transform:rotate(20deg);-ms-transform:rotate(20deg);transform:rotate(20deg);}100%{-webkit-transform:rotate(380deg);-ms-transform:rotate(380deg);transform:rotate(380deg);}}.css-1r7ky0e .e6idgb70 + .e1h9rw200{margin-top:0;}.css-1r7ky0e .eoo0vm40 + .e1gnsphs0{margin-top:-0.3em;}.css-1r7ky0e .e6idgb70 + .eoo0vm40{margin-top:0;}.css-1r7ky0e .eoo0vm40 + figure{margin-top:1.2rem;}.css-1r7ky0e .e1gnsphs0 + figure{margin-top:1.2rem;}.css-ew4tgv{display:none;}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-ew4tgv{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;margin-right:0;margin-left:auto;width:130px;-webkit-align-items:center;-webkit-box-align:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center;}}@media (min-width:1150px){.css-ew4tgv{width:210px;}}@media print{.css-ew4tgv{display:none;}}.css-1fanzo5{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-flex-direction:column;-ms-flex-direction:column;flex-direction:column;margin-bottom:1rem;}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-1fanzo5{-webkit-flex-direction:row;-ms-flex-direction:row;flex-direction:row;height:100%;width:945px;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;}}@media (min-width:1150px){.css-1fanzo5{width:1110px;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;}}@media (min-width:1280px){.css-1fanzo5{width:1170px;}}@media (min-width:1440px){.css-1fanzo5{width:1200px;}}@media print{.css-1fanzo5{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}@media print{.css-1fanzo5{margin-bottom:1em;display:block;}}.css-53u6y8{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;width:100%;}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-53u6y8{margin-left:calc((100% - 600px) / 2);margin-right:0;width:600px;}}@media (min-width:1440px){.css-53u6y8{max-width:600px;width:600px;margin-left:calc((100% - 600px) / 2);}}@media print{.css-53u6y8{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-1skjyvf{0%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);transform:translate3d(0,0,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(-100%,0,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(-100%,0,0);transform:translate3d(-100%,0,0);}}@keyframes animation-1skjyvf{0%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);transform:translate3d(0,0,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(-100%,0,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(-100%,0,0);transform:translate3d(-100%,0,0);}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-csxhw4{0%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(100%,0,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(100%,0,0);transform:translate3d(100%,0,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);transform:translate3d(0,0,0);}}@keyframes animation-csxhw4{0%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(100%,0,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(100%,0,0);transform:translate3d(100%,0,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);transform:translate3d(0,0,0);}}.css-9tf9ac{margin-bottom:1em;}.css-13pd83m{top:0;position:-webkit-sticky;position:sticky;background-color:white;z-index:902;}@media print{.css-13pd83m{display:none;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-13pd83m{margin-top:3px;}}.css-1ly73wi{position:absolute;width:1px;height:1px;margin:-1px;padding:0;border:0;-webkit-clip:rect(0 0 0 0);clip:rect(0 0 0 0);overflow:hidden;}@-webkit-keyframes animation-1acbpvw{0%{opacity:0;}100%{opacity:1;}}@keyframes animation-1acbpvw{0%{opacity:0;}100%{opacity:1;}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-15746cq{0%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(-50%,100%,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(-50%,100%,0);transform:translate3d(-50%,100%,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(-50%,-50%,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(-50%,-50%,0);transform:translate3d(-50%,-50%,0);}}@keyframes animation-15746cq{0%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(-50%,100%,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(-50%,100%,0);transform:translate3d(-50%,100%,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(-50%,-50%,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(-50%,-50%,0);transform:translate3d(-50%,-50%,0);}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-f1cmpm{0%{opacity:1;}100%{opacity:0;}}@keyframes animation-f1cmpm{0%{opacity:1;}100%{opacity:0;}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-b7kewm{0%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(-50%,-50%,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(-50%,-50%,0);transform:translate3d(-50%,-50%,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(-50%,100%,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(-50%,100%,0);transform:translate3d(-50%,100%,0);}}@keyframes animation-b7kewm{0%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(-50%,-50%,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(-50%,-50%,0);transform:translate3d(-50%,-50%,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate3d(-50%,100%,0);-ms-transform:translate3d(-50%,100%,0);transform:translate3d(-50%,100%,0);}}@media (max-width:1040px){.ReactModal__Body--open{overflow:hidden;position:static;}}.css-1q2w90k{opacity:1;visibility:visible;-webkit-animation-name:animation-5j8bii;animation-name:animation-5j8bii;-webkit-animation-duration:300ms;animation-duration:300ms;-webkit-animation-delay:0ms;animation-delay:0ms;-webkit-animation-timing-function:ease-out;animation-timing-function:ease-out;}@media print{.css-1q2w90k{display:none;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-1q2w90k{position:fixed;width:100%;top:0;left:0;z-index:200;background-color:#fff;border-bottom:none;-webkit-transition:all 0.2s ease-in-out;transition:all 0.2s ease-in-out;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-1bymuyk{position:relative;border-bottom:1px solid #e2e2e2;}}.css-ui9rw0{background:#fff;border-bottom:1px solid #e2e2e2;height:36px;padding:8px 15px 3px;position:relative;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-ui9rw0{background:#fff;padding:10px 15px 6px;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-ui9rw0{background:transparent;border-bottom:0;padding:4px 15px 2px;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-ui9rw0{margin:0 auto;max-width:1605px;}}.css-eph4ug{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-box-pack:space-around;-webkit-justify-content:space-around;-ms-flex-pack:space-around;justify-content:space-around;left:10px;position:absolute;}@media print{.css-eph4ug{display:none;}}.css-1uqx5yl{border-radius:3px;cursor:pointer;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;-webkit-transition:ease 0.6s;transition:ease 0.6s;white-space:nowrap;vertical-align:middle;background-color:transparent;color:#000;font-size:11px;line-height:11px;font-weight:700;-webkit-letter-spacing:0.02em;-moz-letter-spacing:0.02em;-ms-letter-spacing:0.02em;letter-spacing:0.02em;padding:11px 12px 8px;border:0;padding:8px 9px;text-transform:uppercase;}.css-1uqx5yl.hidden{opacity:0;visibility:hidden;}.css-1uqx5yl.hidden:focus{opacity:1;}.css-1uqx5yl::-moz-focus-inner{padding:0;border:0;}.css-1uqx5yl:-moz-focusring{outline:1px dotted;}.css-1uqx5yl:disabled,.css-1uqx5yl.disabled{opacity:0.5;cursor:default;}.css-1uqx5yl:active,.css-1uqx5yl.active{background-color:#f7f7f7;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1uqx5yl:hover{background-color:#f7f7f7;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-1uqx5yl{display:none;}}.css-1o0yzqm{border-radius:3px;cursor:pointer;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;-webkit-transition:ease 0.6s;transition:ease 0.6s;white-space:nowrap;vertical-align:middle;background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #ebebeb;color:#333;font-size:11px;line-height:11px;font-weight:500;-webkit-letter-spacing:0.02em;-moz-letter-spacing:0.02em;-ms-letter-spacing:0.02em;letter-spacing:0.02em;padding:11px 12px 8px;text-transform:uppercase;display:none;padding:8px 9px 9px;}.css-1o0yzqm::-moz-focus-inner{padding:0;border:0;}.css-1o0yzqm:-moz-focusring{outline:1px dotted;}.css-1o0yzqm:disabled,.css-1o0yzqm.disabled{opacity:0.5;cursor:default;}.css-1o0yzqm:active,.css-1o0yzqm.active{background-color:#f7f7f7;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1o0yzqm:hover{background-color:#f7f7f7;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-1o0yzqm{border:0;display:inline-block;margin-right:8px;}}.css-fnhm75{border-radius:3px;cursor:pointer;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;-webkit-transition:ease 0.6s;transition:ease 0.6s;white-space:nowrap;vertical-align:middle;background-color:transparent;color:#000;font-size:11px;line-height:11px;font-weight:700;-webkit-letter-spacing:0.02em;-moz-letter-spacing:0.02em;-ms-letter-spacing:0.02em;letter-spacing:0.02em;padding:11px 12px 8px;border:0;}.css-fnhm75::-moz-focus-inner{padding:0;border:0;}.css-fnhm75:-moz-focusring{outline:1px dotted;}.css-fnhm75:disabled,.css-fnhm75.disabled{opacity:0.5;cursor:default;}.css-fnhm75:active,.css-fnhm75.active{background-color:#f7f7f7;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-fnhm75:hover{background-color:#f7f7f7;}}.css-fnhm75.activeSearchButton{background-color:#f7f7f7;}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-fnhm75{padding:8px 9px 9px;}}.css-1wr3we4{display:none;}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-1wr3we4{display:block;position:absolute;left:105px;line-height:19px;top:10px;}}.css-10698na{text-align:center;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-10698na{padding-top:0;}}@media print{.css-10698na a[href]::after{content:'';}.css-10698na svg{fill:black;}}.css-t66y1h{display:block;width:150px;height:21px;margin:7px auto 0;}@media (min-width:375px){.css-t66y1h{width:189px;height:26px;margin:5px auto 0;}}@media (min-width:740px){.css-t66y1h{width:225px;height:31px;margin:4px auto 0;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-t66y1h{width:195px;height:26px;margin:6px auto 0;}}.css-9e9ivx{display:none;font-size:10px;margin-left:auto;text-transform:uppercase;}.hasLinks .css-9e9ivx{display:block;}@media (min-width:740px){.hasLinks .css-9e9ivx{margin:none;position:absolute;right:20px;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.hasLinks .css-9e9ivx{display:none;}}.css-15hmgas{-webkit-align-items:center;-webkit-box-align:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center;display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-size:11px;-webkit-box-pack:space-around;-webkit-justify-content:space-around;-ms-flex-pack:space-around;justify-content:space-around;padding:13px 20px 12px;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-15hmgas{position:relative;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-15hmgas{-webkit-box-pack:justify;-webkit-justify-content:space-between;-ms-flex-pack:justify;justify-content:space-between;border:none;padding:0;height:0;-webkit-transform:translateY(42px);-ms-transform:translateY(42px);transform:translateY(42px);}}@media print{.css-15hmgas{display:none;}}.css-uqyvli{color:#121212;font-size:13px;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;display:none;width:auto;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-uqyvli{text-align:center;width:100%;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-uqyvli{font-size:12px;margin-bottom:10px;width:auto;}}.css-1uqjmks{color:#121212;font-size:12px;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-weight:500;display:none;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1uqjmks{margin:0;position:absolute;left:20px;display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;top:0;bottom:0;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-1uqjmks{display:none;}}.css-1bvtpon{display:none;}.css-4skfbu{color:#999;display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-flex-shrink:0;-ms-flex-negative:0;flex-shrink:0;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-size:17px;margin-bottom:5px;margin-bottom:0;}@media print{.css-4skfbu{display:none;}}.css-1fcn4th{color:#999;display:inline;margin-right:16px;padding:10px 0;width:100%;}.css-1fcn4th a{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}@media (max-width:659px){.css-1fcn4th:nth-of-type(3),.css-1fcn4th:nth-of-type(4){display:none;}}.css-1fcn4th:last-of-type{margin-right:0;}@media (max-width:1150px){.css-1fcn4th:nth-of-type(1),.css-1fcn4th:nth-of-type(2),.css-1fcn4th:nth-of-type(3){display:none;}}.css-13zu7ev{display:inline-block;height:15px;vertical-align:middle;width:15px;background-color:#eee;border:1px #eee solid;border-radius:100%;padding:5px;width:14px;height:14px;}.css-13zu7ev.facebook{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-fb-circle-2ec7780140bd9e8e8398bbcdf5661569.svg);}.css-13zu7ev.twitter{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-twitter-circle-fc7c2748f5613c68963a0df203bffc05.svg);}.css-13zu7ev.email{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-email-circle-a2acce7e23b21d47bb606b628a6c7e34.svg);}.css-13zu7ev.link{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-permalink-circle-3ff3876a106221ee493d9542c0895863.svg);}.css-13zu7ev.linkedin{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-linkedin-circle-4d7bcf236c5f3a086738746f41f46f7b.svg);}.css-13zu7ev.whatsapp{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-whatsapp-video-a9503bf2b3c73111106c496d3ebc8c67.svg);}.css-13zu7ev.reddit{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-reddit-f882338200fd1971b767627fa5f60124.svg);}.css-13zu7ev:hover{background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #ccc;}.css-f7l8cz{display:inline-block;height:15px;vertical-align:middle;width:15px;bottom:5px;position:relative;width:14px;height:14px;bottom:4px;}.css-f7l8cz.facebook{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-fb-circle-2ec7780140bd9e8e8398bbcdf5661569.svg);}.css-f7l8cz.twitter{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-twitter-circle-fc7c2748f5613c68963a0df203bffc05.svg);}.css-f7l8cz.email{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-email-circle-a2acce7e23b21d47bb606b628a6c7e34.svg);}.css-f7l8cz.link{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-permalink-circle-3ff3876a106221ee493d9542c0895863.svg);}.css-f7l8cz.linkedin{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-linkedin-circle-4d7bcf236c5f3a086738746f41f46f7b.svg);}.css-f7l8cz.whatsapp{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-whatsapp-video-a9503bf2b3c73111106c496d3ebc8c67.svg);}.css-f7l8cz.reddit{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-reddit-f882338200fd1971b767627fa5f60124.svg);}.css-16ogagc{background:transparent;display:inline-block;height:20px;width:20px;background-color:#eee;border:1px #eee solid;border-radius:100%;padding:5px;width:27px;height:27px;}.css-16ogagc.hidden{opacity:0;visibility:hidden;}.css-16ogagc.hidden:focus{opacity:1;}.css-16ogagc:hover{background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #ccc;}.css-1vxca1d{position:relative;margin:0 auto;}@media (min-width:600px){.css-1vxca1d{margin:0 auto 20px;}}.css-1vxca1d .relatedcoverage + .recirculation{margin-top:20px;}.css-1vxca1d .wrap + .recirculation{margin-top:20px;}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-1vxca1d{padding-top:40px;}}.css-18e8msd{margin-bottom:1.5625rem;}.css-vp77d3{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-align-items:center;-webkit-box-align:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center;margin-bottom:15px;width:100%;}.css-vp77d3 > img,.css-vp77d3 a > img,.css-vp77d3 div > img{margin-right:10px;}.css-1fv7b6t{display:inline-block;-webkit-letter-spacing:0.02em;-moz-letter-spacing:0.02em;-ms-letter-spacing:0.02em;letter-spacing:0.02em;font-size:0.875rem;line-height:1.125rem;margin:0;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-weight:700;color:#333;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-weight:700;color:#333;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1fv7b6t{font-size:0.9375rem;line-height:1.25rem;}}.css-1xtbm1r{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-box-pack:justify;-webkit-justify-content:space-between;-ms-flex-pack:justify;justify-content:space-between;-webkit-align-items:center;-webkit-box-align:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center;margin:0;-webkit-flex-wrap:nowrap;-ms-flex-wrap:nowrap;flex-wrap:nowrap;}.css-1xtbm1r li{list-style:none;}.css-129k401{font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-weight:500;color:#333;margin-bottom:1rem;font-size:0.8125rem;line-height:1rem;margin-bottom:0;margin-top:0;}html.DarkTheme .css-129k401{color:#ccc;}.css-1ncq2h5{display:inline;-webkit-flex-shrink:0;-ms-flex-negative:0;flex-shrink:0;}.css-4brsb6{display:inline-block;height:15px;vertical-align:middle;width:15px;background-color:#eee;border:1px #eee solid;border-radius:100%;padding:5px;width:15px;height:15px;}.css-4brsb6.facebook{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-fb-circle-2ec7780140bd9e8e8398bbcdf5661569.svg);}.css-4brsb6.twitter{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-twitter-circle-fc7c2748f5613c68963a0df203bffc05.svg);}.css-4brsb6.email{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-email-circle-a2acce7e23b21d47bb606b628a6c7e34.svg);}.css-4brsb6.link{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-permalink-circle-3ff3876a106221ee493d9542c0895863.svg);}.css-4brsb6.linkedin{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-linkedin-circle-4d7bcf236c5f3a086738746f41f46f7b.svg);}.css-4brsb6.whatsapp{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-whatsapp-video-a9503bf2b3c73111106c496d3ebc8c67.svg);}.css-4brsb6.reddit{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-reddit-f882338200fd1971b767627fa5f60124.svg);}.css-4brsb6:hover{background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #ccc;}.css-uhuo44{display:inline-block;height:15px;vertical-align:middle;width:15px;bottom:5px;position:relative;width:15px;height:15px;bottom:4px;}.css-uhuo44.facebook{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-fb-circle-2ec7780140bd9e8e8398bbcdf5661569.svg);}.css-uhuo44.twitter{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-twitter-circle-fc7c2748f5613c68963a0df203bffc05.svg);}.css-uhuo44.email{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-email-circle-a2acce7e23b21d47bb606b628a6c7e34.svg);}.css-uhuo44.link{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-permalink-circle-3ff3876a106221ee493d9542c0895863.svg);}.css-uhuo44.linkedin{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-linkedin-circle-4d7bcf236c5f3a086738746f41f46f7b.svg);}.css-uhuo44.whatsapp{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-whatsapp-video-a9503bf2b3c73111106c496d3ebc8c67.svg);}.css-uhuo44.reddit{background-image:url(/vi-assets/static-assets/icon-share-reddit-f882338200fd1971b767627fa5f60124.svg);}.css-exrw3m{margin-bottom:0.78125rem;margin-top:0;font-family:nyt-imperial,georgia,'times new roman',times,serif;font-size:1.125rem;line-height:1.5625rem;margin-left:20px;margin-right:20px;width:calc(100% - 40px);max-width:600px;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-exrw3m{margin-bottom:0.9375rem;margin-top:0;}}.css-exrw3m .css-1g7m0tk{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-exrw3m .css-1g7m0tk:hover,.css-exrw3m .css-1g7m0tk:focus{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-exrw3m{font-size:1.25rem;line-height:1.875rem;}}.css-exrw3m:first-child{margin-top:0;}.css-exrw3m:last-child{margin-bottom:0;}.css-exrw3m.e1h9rw200:last-child{margin-bottom:0.75rem;}@media (min-width:600px){.css-exrw3m{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-exrw3m{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}@media print{.css-exrw3m{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}.css-1ede5it{background-color:#f7f7f7;border-bottom:1px solid #f3f3f3;border-top:1px solid #f3f3f3;margin:37px auto;padding-bottom:30px;padding-top:12px;text-align:center;margin-top:60px;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1ede5it{margin:43px auto;}}@media print{.css-1ede5it{display:none;}}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1ede5it{margin-bottom:0;margin-top:0;}}.css-batzk0{font-size:11px;text-align:center;padding-bottom:25px;}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-batzk0{padding:0 3% 9px;}}@media (min-width:1150px){.css-batzk0{margin:0 auto;max-width:1200px;}}.NYTApp .css-batzk0{display:none;}@media print{.css-batzk0{display:none;}}.css-1ho5u4o{list-style:none;margin:0 0 15px;padding:0;}@media (min-width:600px){.css-1ho5u4o{display:inline-block;}}.css-13o0c9t{list-style:none;line-height:8px;margin:0 0 35px;padding:0;}@media (min-width:600px){.css-13o0c9t{display:inline-block;}}.css-1yo489b{display:inline-block;line-height:20px;padding:0 10px;}.css-1yo489b:first-child{border-left:none;}.css-1yo489b.desktop{display:none;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1yo489b.smartphone{display:none;}.css-1yo489b.desktop{display:inline-block;}}.css-rl7mdh{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;margin-bottom:15px;margin-top:4px;-webkit-align-items:center;-webkit-box-align:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center;margin-left:20px;margin-right:20px;width:calc(100% - 40px);max-width:600px;}@media (min-width:600px){.css-rl7mdh{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;}}@media (min-width:740px){.css-rl7mdh{width:600px;}}@media print{.css-rl7mdh{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}.css-rl7mdh .e6idgb70{font-size:14px;margin:0;}.css-ns7wfp{font-style:normal;font-stretch:normal;margin-bottom:1.875rem;color:#333;font-family:nyt-cheltenham,georgia,'times new roman',times,serif;font-weight:300;font-size:1.25rem;line-height:1.5625rem;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-ns7wfp{font-size:1.4375rem;line-height:1.875rem;}}.css-1a48zt4{opacity:1;-webkit-transition:opacity 0.3s 0.2s;transition:opacity 0.3s 0.2s;}.css-1ox9jel{margin:37px auto;margin-top:20px;margin-bottom:32px;}.css-1ox9jel strong{font-weight:700;}.css-1ox9jel em{font-style:italic;}.css-1ox9jel.sizeSmall{width:calc(100% - 40px);display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;}@media (min-width:600px){.css-1ox9jel.sizeSmall{max-width:600px;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-1ox9jel.sizeSmall{width:100%;}}@media (min-width:1440px){.css-1ox9jel.sizeSmall{max-width:600px;}}.css-1ox9jel.sizeSmall.sizeSmallNoCaption{display:block;}@media print{.css-1ox9jel.sizeSmall.sizeSmallNoCaption{display:none;}}.css-1ox9jel.sizeMedium{width:100%;max-width:600px;margin-right:auto;margin-left:auto;}@media (min-width:600px){.css-1ox9jel.sizeMedium{width:calc(100% - 40px);}}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1ox9jel.sizeMedium{max-width:600px;}}@media (min-width:1440px){.css-1ox9jel.sizeMedium{max-width:720px;}}@media (min-width:600px){.css-1ox9jel.sizeMedium.layoutVertical{width:420px;}}@media (min-width:1440px){.css-1ox9jel.sizeMedium.layoutVertical{width:480px;}}.css-1ox9jel.sizeMedium.layoutVertical.verticalVideo{width:calc(100% - 40px);}@media (min-width:600px){.css-1ox9jel.sizeMedium.layoutVertical.verticalVideo{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;width:600px;}}@media (min-width:1440px){.css-1ox9jel.sizeMedium.layoutVertical.verticalVideo{width:600px;}}.css-1ox9jel.sizeLarge{width:100%;max-width:1200px;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;}@media (min-width:600px){.css-1ox9jel.sizeLarge{width:auto;}}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1ox9jel.sizeLarge.layoutVertical{width:600px;}.css-1ox9jel.sizeLarge.layoutVertical.verticalVideo{width:600px;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-1ox9jel.sizeLarge{width:945px;}}@media (min-width:1440px){.css-1ox9jel.sizeLarge{width:1200px;}.css-1ox9jel.sizeLarge.layoutVertical{width:720px;}.css-1ox9jel.sizeLarge.layoutVertical.verticalVideo{width:600px;}}@media (min-width:600px){.css-1ox9jel{margin:43px auto;}}@media print{.css-1ox9jel{display:none;}}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1ox9jel{margin-top:25px;}}.css-17ai7jg{color:#666;font-family:nyt-imperial,georgia,'times new roman',times,serif;margin:10px 20px 0;text-align:left;}.css-17ai7jg a{color:#326891;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-17ai7jg a:hover,.css-17ai7jg a:focus{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}@media (min-width:600px){.css-17ai7jg{margin-left:0;}}.sizeSmall .css-17ai7jg{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-flex-direction:column;-ms-flex-direction:column;flex-direction:column;width:calc(50% - 15px);margin:auto 0 15px 15px;}@media (min-width:600px){.sizeSmall .css-17ai7jg{width:260px;margin-left:15px;}}@media (min-width:740px){.sizeSmall .css-17ai7jg{margin-left:15px;}}@media (min-width:1440px){.sizeSmall .css-17ai7jg{width:330px;margin-left:15px;}}@media (max-width:600px){.sizeSmall .css-17ai7jg{margin:auto 0 0 15px;}}.sizeSmall.sizeSmallNoCaption .css-17ai7jg{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;margin-top:10px;}.sizeMedium .css-17ai7jg{max-width:900px;}.sizeMedium.layoutVertical.verticalVideo .css-17ai7jg{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;}@media (min-width:600px){.sizeMedium.layoutVertical.verticalVideo .css-17ai7jg{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-flex-direction:column;-ms-flex-direction:column;flex-direction:column;width:255px;margin:auto 0 15px 15px;}}@media (min-width:1440px){.sizeMedium.layoutVertical.verticalVideo .css-17ai7jg{width:325px;}}.sizeLarge .css-17ai7jg{max-width:none;}@media (min-width:600px){.sizeLarge .css-17ai7jg{margin-left:20px;}}@media (min-width:740px){.sizeLarge .css-17ai7jg{margin-left:20px;max-width:900px;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.sizeLarge .css-17ai7jg{margin-left:0;max-width:720px;}}@media (min-width:1440px){.sizeLarge .css-17ai7jg{margin-left:0;max-width:900px;}}@media (min-width:740px){.sizeLarge.layoutVertical .css-17ai7jg{margin-left:0;}}.sizeFull .css-17ai7jg{margin-left:20px;}@media (min-width:600px){.sizeFull .css-17ai7jg{max-width:900px;}}@media (min-width:740px){.sizeFull .css-17ai7jg{max-width:900px;}}@media (min-width:1440px){.sizeFull .css-17ai7jg{max-width:900px;}}@media print{.css-17ai7jg{display:none;}}.css-1fxp258{display:inline;color:#888;font-family:nyt-imperial,georgia,'times new roman',times,serif;line-height:1.125rem;-webkit-letter-spacing:0.01em;-moz-letter-spacing:0.01em;-ms-letter-spacing:0.01em;letter-spacing:0.01em;font-size:0.75rem;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1fxp258{font-size:0.75rem;}}@media (min-width:1150px){.css-1fxp258{font-size:0.8125rem;}}@media (min-width:600px){.sizeSmall.sizeSmallNoCaption .css-1fxp258{margin-left:5px;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.sizeSmall.sizeSmallNoCaption .css-1fxp258{margin-left:5px;}}@media (min-width:1440px){.sizeSmall.sizeSmallNoCaption .css-1fxp258{margin-left:40px;}}@media (max-width:600px){.sizeSmall.sizeSmallNoCaption .css-1fxp258{margin-left:-8px;}}@media print{.css-1fxp258{display:none;}}.css-jwz2nf{font-style:normal;color:#333;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-weight:500;font-size:0.9375rem;line-height:1.25rem;margin:0 20px 1rem;margin-left:20px;margin-right:20px;width:calc(100% - 40px);max-width:600px;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-jwz2nf{font-size:1rem;line-height:1.375rem;}}.css-jwz2nf .css-1g7m0tk{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-jwz2nf .css-1g7m0tk:hover,.css-jwz2nf .css-1g7m0tk:focus{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-jwz2nf:first-child{margin-top:0;}.css-jwz2nf:last-child{margin-bottom:0;}.css-jwz2nf.e1h9rw200:last-child{margin-bottom:0.75rem;}@media (min-width:600px){.css-jwz2nf{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-jwz2nf{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}@media print{.css-jwz2nf{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}.css-16f3y1r{margin-right:7px;color:#666;font-family:nyt-imperial,georgia,'times new roman',times,serif;font-size:0.875rem;line-height:1.125rem;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-16f3y1r{font-size:0.9375rem;line-height:1.25rem;}}.Hybrid.DarkTheme .css-16f3y1r{color:#ccc;}.css-16f3y1r strong{font-weight:700;}.css-16f3y1r em{font-style:italic;}.css-16f3y1r a{color:#326891;}.css-16f3y1r a:visited{color:#326891;}.css-tsacue{text-transform:uppercase;color:#333;font-family:nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-weight:500;-webkit-letter-spacing:0.05em;-moz-letter-spacing:0.05em;-ms-letter-spacing:0.05em;letter-spacing:0.05em;font-size:0.8125rem;line-height:1.125rem;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-tsacue{font-size:0.875rem;line-height:1.25rem;}}.css-tsacue .css-1g7m0tk{color:#000;border-bottom:2px solid #ccc;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-tsacue .css-1g7m0tk:hover,.css-tsacue .css-1g7m0tk:focus{color:#000;border-bottom:2px solid #000;}.css-tsacue .css-1g7m0tk:visited{color:#000;}.css-kcrh4f{color:#121212;font-family:nyt-cheltenham,georgia,'times new roman',times,serif;font-weight:400;font-size:1.625rem;line-height:1.875rem;margin-left:20px;margin-right:20px;width:calc(100% - 40px);max-width:600px;margin:30px 20px 0.75rem;text-align:left;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-kcrh4f{font-size:1.75rem;line-height:2.125rem;}}.css-kcrh4f .css-1g7m0tk{border-bottom:1px solid #567b95;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-kcrh4f .css-1g7m0tk:hover,.css-kcrh4f .css-1g7m0tk:focus{border-bottom:1px solid #b3c4ca;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-kcrh4f:first-child{margin-top:0;}.css-kcrh4f:last-child{margin-bottom:0;}.css-kcrh4f.e1h9rw200:last-child{margin-bottom:0.75rem;}@media (min-width:600px){.css-kcrh4f{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-kcrh4f{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}@media print{.css-kcrh4f{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}@media (min-width:740px){.css-kcrh4f{margin-top:35px;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;margin-bottom:1.25rem;}}@media print{.css-kcrh4f{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}.css-1eurlhz{margin-top:5px;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1eurlhz{margin-top:45px;margin-bottom:0;}}.css-1eurlhz .e6idgb70{margin-top:1.875rem;color:#121212;font-weight:700;line-height:0.75rem;margin-bottom:0.625rem;margin-left:auto;}@media print{.css-1eurlhz .e6idgb70{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}.css-1eurlhz .e1h9rw200{margin-bottom:16px;margin-left:20px;margin-right:20px;width:calc(100% - 40px);max-width:600px;margin-top:0;}@media (min-width:600px){.css-1eurlhz .e1h9rw200{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;}}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1eurlhz .e1h9rw200{width:600px;}}@media print{.css-1eurlhz .e1h9rw200{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1eurlhz .e1h9rw200{max-width:none;margin-left:calc((100% - 600px) / 2);margin-right:auto;position:relative;width:660px;}@media print{.css-1eurlhz .e1h9rw200{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}}.css-1eurlhz .euiyums3 .e6idgb70{margin:0;}@media print{.css-1eurlhz .euiyums3 .e6idgb70{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}.css-1eurlhz .e1wiw3jv0{color:#333;margin-left:20px;margin-right:20px;width:calc(100% - 40px);max-width:600px;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1eurlhz .e1wiw3jv0{text-align:left;}}@media (min-width:600px){.css-1eurlhz .e1wiw3jv0{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;}}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1eurlhz .e1wiw3jv0{width:600px;}}@media print{.css-1eurlhz .e1wiw3jv0{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}@media print{.css-1eurlhz .e1wiw3jv0{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}.css-1eurlhz .e16638kd0{width:auto;margin-bottom:0;margin-left:0;display:inline-block;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;width:auto;}.css-1eurlhz .eatfx1z0{margin-right:15px;font-weight:700;font-size:14px;line-height:1;}.css-1eurlhz .section-kicker .opinion-bar{font-size:25px;}.css-1eurlhz .epjyd6m0{margin-left:20px;margin-right:20px;width:calc(100% - 40px);max-width:600px;}@media (min-width:600px){.css-1eurlhz .epjyd6m0{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;}}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1eurlhz .epjyd6m0{width:600px;}}@media print{.css-1eurlhz .epjyd6m0{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}.css-1eurlhz .e1g7ppur0{margin-bottom:32px;margin-top:20px;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1eurlhz .e1g7ppur0{margin-top:25px;}}@media (min-width:1024px){.css-1eurlhz .e1g7ppur0{margin-bottom:43px;}}.css-1eurlhz .e1q76eii0{margin-left:20px;margin-right:20px;width:calc(100% - 40px);max-width:600px;max-width:600px;}@media (min-width:600px){.css-1eurlhz .e1q76eii0{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;}}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1eurlhz .e1q76eii0{width:600px;}}@media print{.css-1eurlhz .e1q76eii0{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}@media print{.css-1eurlhz .e1q76eii0{display:none;}}.css-1eurlhz .euiyums1{margin-bottom:20px;color:#121212;}@media print{.css-1eurlhz .euiyums1{margin-left:0;margin-right:0;width:100%;max-width:100%;}}@media (min-width:740px){.css-1eurlhz .euiyums1{text-align:left;}}.css-fnr6md{color:#121212;font-family:nyt-cheltenham,georgia,'times new roman',times,serif;font-weight:200;font-style:normal;font-size:2.25rem;line-height:2.5rem;text-align:left;}@media (min-width:740px){.css-fnr6md{font-size:2.75rem;line-height:3.125rem;}}@media (min-width:1150px){.css-fnr6md{font-size:2.9375rem;line-height:3.4375rem;}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-1e91rfo{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(0,0);-ms-transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(0,0);transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(0,0);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(0,0);-ms-transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(0,0);transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(0,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(0,0);-ms-transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(0,0);transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(0,0);}}@keyframes animation-1e91rfo{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(0,0);-ms-transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(0,0);transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(0,0);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(0,0);-ms-transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(0,0);transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(0,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(0,0);-ms-transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(0,0);transform:translate(0,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(0,0);}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-h29fi5{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,15px);-ms-transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,15px);transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,15px);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,10px);-ms-transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,10px);transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,10px);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,30px);-ms-transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,30px);transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,30px);}}@keyframes animation-h29fi5{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,15px);-ms-transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,15px);transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,15px);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,10px);-ms-transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,10px);transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,10px);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,30px);-ms-transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,30px);transform:translate(0,0) translate(0,0) translate(0,30px);}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-1q05mva{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);-ms-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);-ms-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);-ms-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);}}@keyframes animation-1q05mva{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);-ms-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);-ms-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);-ms-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0);}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-k543x9{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,15px);-ms-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,15px);transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,15px);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,10px);-ms-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,10px);transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,10px);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,30px);-ms-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,30px);transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,30px);}}@keyframes animation-k543x9{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,15px);-ms-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,15px);transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,15px);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,10px);-ms-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,10px);transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,10px);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,30px);-ms-transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,30px);transform:translate(11.329999923706055px,0) translate(-11.329999923706055px,0) translate(0,30px);}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-kxbuhr{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);-ms-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);-ms-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);-ms-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);}}@keyframes animation-kxbuhr{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);-ms-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);-ms-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);-ms-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0);}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-1sxmvgn{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,15px);-ms-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,15px);transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,15px);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,10px);-ms-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,10px);transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,10px);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,30px);-ms-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,30px);transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,30px);}}@keyframes animation-1sxmvgn{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,15px);-ms-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,15px);transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,15px);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,10px);-ms-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,10px);transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,10px);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,30px);-ms-transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,30px);transform:translate(22.670000076293945px,0) translate(-22.670000076293945px,0) translate(0,30px);}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-g0tn84{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,15px);-ms-transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,15px);transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,15px);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,10px);-ms-transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,10px);transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,10px);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,30px);-ms-transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,30px);transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,30px);}}@keyframes animation-g0tn84{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,15px);-ms-transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,15px);transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,15px);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,10px);-ms-transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,10px);transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,10px);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,30px);-ms-transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,30px);transform:translate(34px,0) translate(-34px,0) translate(0,30px);}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-4tin05{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-34px,0);-ms-transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-34px,0);transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-34px,0);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-34px,0);-ms-transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-34px,0);transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-34px,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-34px,0);-ms-transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-34px,0);transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-34px,0);}}@keyframes animation-4tin05{0%{-webkit-transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-34px,0);-ms-transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-34px,0);transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.85) translate(-34px,0);}33.33%{-webkit-transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-34px,0);-ms-transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-34px,0);transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.9) translate(-34px,0);}100%{-webkit-transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-34px,0);-ms-transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-34px,0);transform:translate(34px,0) scale(1,0.1) translate(-34px,0);}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-qxlwcd{from{opacity:0;-webkit-transform:translateX(200px);-ms-transform:translateX(200px);transform:translateX(200px);}to{opacity:1;-webkit-transform:translateX(0);-ms-transform:translateX(0);transform:translateX(0);}}@keyframes animation-qxlwcd{from{opacity:0;-webkit-transform:translateX(200px);-ms-transform:translateX(200px);transform:translateX(200px);}to{opacity:1;-webkit-transform:translateX(0);-ms-transform:translateX(0);transform:translateX(0);}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-cyqadh{0%{-webkit-transform:translateY(3px);-ms-transform:translateY(3px);transform:translateY(3px);opacity:0;}100%{-webkit-transform:translateY(0);-ms-transform:translateY(0);transform:translateY(0);opacity:1;}}@keyframes animation-cyqadh{0%{-webkit-transform:translateY(3px);-ms-transform:translateY(3px);transform:translateY(3px);opacity:0;}100%{-webkit-transform:translateY(0);-ms-transform:translateY(0);transform:translateY(0);opacity:1;}}@-webkit-keyframes animation-10panej{from,to{right:0;}10%,60%,90%{right:-2px;}20%,50%,80%{right:2px;}30%{right:1px;}40%,70%{right:-1px;}}@keyframes animation-10panej{from,to{right:0;}10%,60%,90%{right:-2px;}20%,50%,80%{right:2px;}30%{right:1px;}40%,70%{right:-1px;}} SectionsSEARCHSkip to contentSkip to site indexSmarter LivingToday’s PaperSmarter Living|Putting Premium Gas in an Engine That Requires Regular? Stop It Nowhttps://nyti.ms/2Z69JbWAdvertisement An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel. The higher the octane number, the more compression the fuel can withstand before detonating..

Which octane fuel is right for my Toyota model? Because virtually all Toyota models are built to be distributed on the consumer class, the recommended octane rating for each vehicle that you own is 87 Octane rating is the measure of a fuel's ability to resist "knocking" or "pinging" during combustion, caused by the air/fuel mixture detonating prematurely in the engine. With gas on the rise what octane are you running? I was running 94 octane for the past few months but it's starting to get expensive so I switched to 91 roughly a tank and half ago and I'm curious if I could even possibly go to 89 or 87 and if going to.. Leaded 110 octane on other side of building, I have no cats so I topped it off with a few gallons. I went to the neighboring town of Plymouth and there is only 91 octane

Premium Gasoline - What Does Premium Fuel Do for Your Car

All are for 87 octane fuel. I see a few posts here and there with guys running 91 octane tunes when towing or hauling. I acknowledge that premium fuel often has more (better?) detergents so the conversation can move beyond a simple question of performance differences Gibbs, L., B. Anderson, K. Barnes, et al. 2009. Motor Gasolines Technical Review. Chevron Corporation.Most high-compression gas engines require use of premium gas to better resist engine knock and prevent the computer from detuning the engine to protect against knock-related damage. Using premium gas in a clean, mechanically sound engine not designed to use it, though, provides no benefit. High Octane Premium Fuel Myths: Higher octane gasoline delivers more engine power - Absolutely Higher octane leads to better engine startup - Higher octane does not lead to faster engine startup Are higher octane fuels better? Do higher octane fuels make more power? This video will include a test conducted by Shell to show the performance benefits..

While high-octane premium fuels to can help combat engine knock, some of our customers prefer using fuel additives to help increase the octane ratings of regular 87 octane pump gas An explanation of Fuel Octane ratings. Da Do RON RON. Premium or Super? What about one of the newer 100+ octane fuels? Is it worth buying an octane boosting petrol additive Higher octane fuel is more resistant to predetonation. While the new 2013 BMW F30 328i says on the filler to use Premium fuel, the minimum octane recommended on the same label is actually 89.. All are for 87 octane fuel. I see a few posts here and there with guys running 91 octane tunes when towing or hauling. I acknowledge that premium fuel often has more (better?) detergents so the conversation can move beyond a simple question of performance differences

Octane+ is a simple fuel octane rating calculator. Octane+ is meant for those who would rather use a certain fuel octane rating rather than the high or low ratings provided ..V-Power premium fuel at Shell stations nationwide, while grades below Nitro+ will have lower No changes to octane are set to occur, though Shell is silent on how much more consumers will pay for.. Shell V-Power® NiTRO+ Premium fuels have been developed through our Innovation Partnership The highest octane of all Shell fuels at 91 octane. The highest concentration of the Shell Nitrogen.. The higher octane gives premium gas greater resistance to early fuel ignition, which can result in But if the vehicle manufacturer says your engine needs only 87-octane regular, that is what you..

Premium vs. Regular Gasoline U.S. News & World Repor

  1. Premium Fuel is considerably pricer that your regular fuel. Major Indian oil companies like BPCL In India unleaded petrol typically has octane ratings of 87, whereas premium fuel has an octane level..
  2. You do have to use premium fuel. That seems to be the one that needs 91 octane gas to get it's advertised 170hp
  3. Fuel-efficient cars will save you a packet on fuel costs in the long run. Fuel-efficient cars are likely to avoid extra fees such as London's Ultra Low Emissions Zone, which charges drivers of more polluting..
  4. ently displayed in large black numbers on a yellow background on gasoline pumps.
  5. Fuel (LTG 2.0L L4 Turbo Engine) Premium Recommended Fuel Use premium 93 octane unleaded gasoline in your vehicle. Unleaded gasoline with an octane rating as low as 87 may be used..
  6. Premium fuel will provide improved performance and is recommended for severe duty usage such as trailer tow. I now have about 4,000 miles and 14 tankfuls of 87 octane (regular) after a year+ running 91, and my fuel economy is running dead even (maybe even peaked up..

Save Money and Stop Buying Premium Gasoline Edmund

  1. g and other magic
  2. Some drivers are blending their own 'premium fuel'. E85 is meant to be used in flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs), or vehicles that have been converted from gasoline-only to run on higher ethanol blends
  3. Toyota recommends premium fuel for the Sienna. While occasionally using lower-octane gasoline Toyota recommends premium fuel to boost horsepower and performance. The Toyota Sienna's..
  4. Adding some octane from a bottle and then filling up with premium (from a different gas station of course) fixed my lazy performance and it seems even Has anyone tried adding a bottle of octane to a 91 octane fill up to get a 94 octane number
  5. Prakash, A., R. Cracknell, V. Natarajan, D. Doyle et al. 2016. Understanding the Octane Appetite of Modern Vehicles. SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 9(2):345-357, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0834.
Compression ratio for pump gas | Page 2 | NastyZ28

Putting Premium Gas in an Engine That Requires Regular

  1. Alibaba.com offers 467 fuel octane products. About 1% of these are Syntheses Material Intermediates, 1% are Dyestuff Intermediates, and 1% are Pharmaceutical Intermediates
  2. Blended for off-road racing applications, Octanium® increases gasoline octane up to 8 numbers (80 32oz. treats up to 10 gallons (38 Liters) • Increases octane up to 8 numbers / 80 points • Increases..
  3. The premium fuel with a higher octane rating is needed to ensure the fuel combusts at the correct Better Octane? Both MIX-I-GO and Ethanol Defense are formulated with a combustion catalyst that..

Premium or regular fuel? Autoweek Explains octane grade

What are the Benefits of Premium Petrol? GoFa

Can I Use A Higher Octane Fuel Than Recommended? Fuel retailers love to talk up the purported benefits of their premium fuels. They don't lie on this, but they do overstate the benefits Hi, I have a 2011 wrx with an accessport, I recently put 93 octane in the car as it was the only premium fuel the station had I flashed to the 93 octane tune and i I just installed my AP tonight on my 2012 STI using the stage 1 91 octane map running 93 octane in the tank Why Fuel Additives Won't Improve Performance and Gas Mileage. by Eric J. Leech, Planet Green. Using Octane Boost Instead of Premium Fuel Using a lower octane fuel than required can cause the engine to run poorly and can damage the engine and emissions control system over time. It may also void your warranty. In older vehicles, the engine can make an audible "knocking" or "pinging" sound. Many newer vehicles can adjust the spark timing to reduce knock, but engine power and fuel economy will still suffer. just curious what octane you guys are using. just curious what octane you guys are using. I know with some bikes you will get better power and MPG because the computer won't pull any timing

Octane Explained: Does Premium, High-Octane Gas Boost

  1. High octane fuel delays ignition in the cylinder and is typically required for higher performance If you are unable to find premium unleaded gasoline, you may substi- tute an unleaded regular gasoline
  2. ..octane fuel and a list of the Lexus models with a premium unleaded, 91 octane fuel requirement. Basically, if you drive a GS, IS, RC coupe, LS, GX or LX - always use the higher octane fuel so you..
  3. Szybist, J. and B. West. 2013. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on the Knock Limit of "E85". SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 6(1):44-54, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0888.

Greetings, most of my 2 cycle engines spec a minimum of 89 octane, and I know fuel loses octane as it ages/degrades so I usually buy premium, except I have Yes, I know you can add stabilizers to fuel, and I suppose octane boosters, but I.. The sale of 85 octane fuel was originally allowed in high-elevation regions—where the barometric pressure is lower—because it was cheaper and because most carbureted engines tolerated it fairly well. This is not true for modern gasoline engines. So, unless you have an older vehicle with a carbureted engine, you should use the manufacturer-recommended fuel for your vehicle, even where 85 octane fuel is available. MIT study finds wider use of premium gas could save fuel, money Octane Plus is a self-mixing combination of agents formulated according to state-of-the-art additive Bundle. Languages. Octane Plus. 8351. 150 ml Can sheet metal. GB-ARAB-F. Octane Plus. 2812

Octane Rating - Understanding Fuel Octane Exxon and Mobi

Anyone else here run ethanol-free fuel in their cars? I just started filling up with FastTrac 91 octane ethanol-free, since it is only about 15.. Premium-grade gasoline is the most expensive gas you can usually buy, costing about 50 cents a gallon The basic guidance, as always, is to follow the automaker's fuel requirement in the owner's..

On an engine’s intake stroke, the piston travels down the cylinder, allowing air/fuel to fill the available space. Assume the cylinder holds 900cc when the piston is at bottom dead center. The piston then travels up the cylinder, compressing the fuel/air in preparation for combustion. Assume cylinder volume is reduced to 100cc when the piston is at top dead center. The relationship between the two volumes is known as the compression ratio. In this case, 900:100 is reduced to 9:1. The compression ratio indicates cylinder pressure, and more pressure equals more power and greater efficiency. That’s why high-performance cars and heavy-duty diesels typically have higher compression ratios than standard cars or trucks.  100 Octane fuel has finally made its debut in Malaysia. 43), making it slightly pricier than other premium fuels available in Malaysia. It will be available at eight petrol stations The requested URL was rejected. Please consult with your administrator. Your support ID is: 17749327675043014272. [Go Back] You should use the octane rating required for your vehicle by the manufacturer. So, check your owner's manual. Most gasoline vehicles are designed to run on 87 octane, but others are designed to use higher octane fuel. I've tried putting 'premium' fuel in my Prius II for the last couple of tanks. With higher octane fuel what you're really paying for is slower combustion

The higher a fuels octane rating, the more compression and heat that fuel can handle before Octane is a rating for a fuels ability to prevent pre-detonation, or combusting before being ignited by.. If the fuel flap says 'premium unleaded only' it means you need to use at least 95. It can't hurt your engine if you use a higher octane fuel. So, for example, if you use 95 or 98 in an engine designed for.. Premium fuels can be found at every petrol station in Australia, but what's so 'premium' about them and There is a 95RON octane rating Unleaded, while Premium Unleaded increases the octane to.. Octane is a vehicle body released on July 7, 2015, along with the game release. It originally appeared in the Rocket League precursor Supersonic Acrobatic Rocket-Powered Battle-Cars. The Octane is classified as common rarity Our highest octane fuel, BP Ultimate 98 with ACTIVE Premium 95 with ACTIVE technology is designed to help remove dirt and help keep your engine working as the manufacturer intended

What is the difference between high octane fuel and low octane fuel

  1. Order $100 or more in AMSOIL products and receive free ground shipping anywhere in the continental U.S.
  2. What's the difference between premium and regular fuel? What does that octane rating number represent? This video explains why cars with higher compression ratios need high octane fuels
  3. Add a Preferred Customer membership to your cart and pay wholesale prices for all AMSOIL products – a savings of approximately 25%. You’ll pay regular AMSOIL shipping rates, but still save more than regular online/catalog customers. In addition, Preferred Customers pay wholesale prices on future orders for the duration of their P.C. membership. Memberships can be renewed annually.

100-Octane, Super Premium Fuel Is Coming to a Pump - The Driv

Normal Fuel vs Premium Fuel: Which is the Right Fuel

  1. When motorists see premium 91-octane gas at the pump, they may assume it contains higher energy content compared to regular 87-octane gas. After all, “high-octane” is often synonymous with increased power and performance. The 91-octane gas should, they think, provide improved fuel economy and power.
  2. Synergy Supreme+™ premium gasoline. Synergy Diesel Efficient™ fuel for passenger vehicles. Octane rating is a measure of a fuel's ability to resist 'knock.' The octane requirement of an engine..
  3. This fuel boasts of an octane rating of 99, which is currently the. State-owned fuel retailer Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (HPCL) has launched a new high-octane petrol called 'poWer 99'
  4. Sales of premium fuel are rising, and are likely to remain high as Americans buy more small-displacement turbocharged cars. But what do you really know about the fuel you're putting in your tank
  5. Yes. Ethanol has a much higher octane rating (about 109) than gasoline. Refiners usually blend ethanol with gasoline to help boost its octane rating—most gasoline in the U.S. contains up to 10% ethanol. Blends of up to 15% ethanol are available in some areas, and several manufacturers approve using this blend in recent-model vehicles.

In engines with carbon buildup on pistons or in the combustion chamber, however, premium gas can provide some benefit. Deposits can reduce cylinder volume at top dead center, effectively increasing the compression ratio. This alone can lead to engine knock. The deposits can also become hot spots that preignite the mixture, leading to engine knock.Thomas, J., B. West, and S. Huff. 2015. Effects of High-Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle. ORNL/TM-2015/116. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. fuel. • Fuels containing the octane booster. additive, methylcyclopentadienyl. recommend premium fuel for severe duty. usage such as trailer tow. Do not be concerned if your engine

What is Engine Knock?

So increasing fuel octane rating seems like a logical next step. The Buck Stops Here. The idea of super premium octane levels (100 octane range) is not a new concept, and many of you have.. While higher compression seems like all up-side, it can invite negative consequences. Compression heats the fuel/air mixture, allowing it to burn more efficiently. If compressed too much, gasoline can spontaneously ignite, causing uncontrolled and early ignition. This leads to a knocking or pinging sound, robs the engine of power and can lead to engine damage. Typically, the engine’s computer will detect engine knock and adjust timing and the air/fuel ratio accordingly. Although this protects the engine from damage, it can substantially reduce engine performance and efficiency. A recent AAA report found that American motorists wasted $2.1 billion dollars in the last year buying premium gasoline for engines designed to run on regular gas. Many years ago, premium gas claimed to be efficient in terms of cleaning the fuel injectors. How Does Premium and Regular Gas Differs. To simply state, premium gas has more octane level than..

Leone, T., E. Olin, J. Anderson, H. Jung, et al. 2014. Effects of Fuel Octane Rating and Ethanol Content on Knock, Fuel Economy, and CO2 for a Turbocharged DI Engine. SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 7(1):9-28, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1228. Premium unleaded 91 octane fuel is required for the Acura NSX and recommended for the Acura For a high-performance vehicle like the Acura NSX, premium fuel is downright necessary to keep its.. However, high-octane fuel carries a price premium. Is it worth fueling them up with high-octane fuel? Will your engine produce more power as oil companies' commercials suggest If your car requires premium fuel, using gasoline with too low an octane rating can potentially cause damage and may void your warranty. Some stations offer mid-grade fuel (usually 89 octane)

The octane numbers of blends of these substances in various concentrations and the change in sensitivity of the fuel are calculated. In the research method it is shown that the octane number of the.. The octane of a specific fuel is a number that states how likely the gas is to ignite under pressure. compression engines or engine that use forced induction require premium fuel at 91 octane or higher Whether you fill up with Regular (87 octane), Plus (89 octane), Premium (91 octane), or Ultra® 93 grade of fuel, rest assured you're getting the very best at your local Sunoco gas station

Higher octane rating in the premium fuel Some additives and boosters used in the premium fuel which according to the brand provides added refinement. Higher octane generally leads to higher.. If your vehicle requires premium 91 or higher octane fuel, use a premium grade of gasoline. What happens if you use a lower grade fuel in an engine that requires premium fuel Lastly, premium or high grade gasoline has an octane rating of 90-94 AKI. The different grades of fuel don't burn the same way. The less octane, or the lower the grade, the faster and stronger it.. B&O™ Premium Audio System with 12 speakers including CD player, HD Radio™ , and subwoofer in trunk. 480 hp @ 7,000 rpm (5.0L V8, 93-octane fuel) On BULLITT only. Torque. 350 lb.-ft Racing Octane Boosters & Fuel Treatments; We've a massive range of Petrol & Diesel Additives all at Great Prices. Motorsport Fuel Octane Boosters / Fuel Treatments

With the TÜV-certified Octane Premium, based on the newest additive technology, the RON octane number of the fuel is For this reason, Octane Premium is ideally suited for use in lower quality fuels West, B., S. Huff, L. Moore, M. DeBusk, and S. Sluder. 2018. Effects of High-Octane E25 on Two Vehicles Equipped with Turbocharged, Direct-Injection Engines. ORNL/TM-2018/814. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Basically with lower octane fuel, you buy fuel more often plus you can't drive your car to its At the local Shell they have: Premium 93 octane fuel, which has 10% ethanol Premium 91 octane fuel..

Higher Octane Doesn’t Mean Higher Quality

Oil companies and automakers are quietly collaborating to get higher-octane fuel into pumps all across the country. The idea is to make every car on the road burn higher-octane gas reducing CO2 in Canada using premium 91 octane fuel is the only way you get 100% gasoline and that's not even true of all the retailers U.S. State Fuel Octane Standards. Language. Watch. Edit. Most states do not mandate certain standard gasoline grade octane ratings. In the United States and Canada, octane ratings are in AKI, commonly shown as (R+M).. Currently, high-octane fuel is marketed as 'premium,' but future combustion engines may require higher octane fuels to reach even greater engine efficiencies and higher mile-per-gallon ratings

fuel system - What are the benefits of premium (high octane) petrol

In the U.S., unleaded gasoline typically has octane ratings of 87 (regular), 88–90 (midgrade), and 91–94 (premium). Gasoline with an octane rating of 85 is available in some high-elevation areas of the U.S. (more about that below). Find solutions to your premium fuel octane question.Premium unleaded fuel 91 octane Higher-performance cars often require midgrade or premium gas because their engines are designed for.. ..in order to offer improved performance on high octane fuels while reducing the risk of engine damage caused by knock while running on low octane fuels. When gas was $.87/gallon, a 20 cent increase for premium was a lot; nowadays with $3 plus/gal, 20 cents is crap

By the way the STP octane booster can only increase octane by up to 0.5 points - very ineffective for E.g if your car is rated at 290bhp for premium fuel, then with regular it will be out putting 246bhp In contrast, the 89 octane fuel continues to provide power up the hill. If Toyota actually intended the engine to run on premium fuel, they would have stated a standard premium fuel octane The octane rating is a measure of the resistance of petrol and other fuels to autoignition in spark-ignition internal combustion engines. The octane number of a fuel is measured in a test engine, and is defined by comparison with the mixture of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (iso-octane).. However, high-octane fuel has less energy content than lower-octane fuel, just like with ethanol, so you may get worse fuel economy using it, especially if your engine doesn't need it

Per the owners manual 91 octane fuel (premium) is recommended. The only engine that needs a higher octane fuel is the GT which had a Yamaha designed engine. it does require premium fuel Vehicles that require premium fuel will have one that says Premium Unleaded Fuel Only, with a number that indicates the minimum octane rating. Note that many vehicles have a premium fuel.. Googling 'regular vs premium' returns an astronomical number of contradicting threads and test results on the use of different kids of fuel in different engines

Looking for fuel octane factory direct sale? You can buy factory price fuel octane from a great list of reliable China fuel octane manufacturers, suppliers, traders or plants verified by a third-party inspector Application Octane Booster is designed for use in all petrol engines in passenger cars, 4WDs, light heavy commercial vehicles, motorcycles, marine and stationary engines

The premium fuels like Extra-Premium, Speed and Power also have the same octane rating of 91. So, normal fuel will do just fine for your car as long as the required octane rating matches ..(regular octane) or super unleaded fuel (high octane), or it will give a number, typically RON95 or Will premium fuels improve my car's fuel economy? That's hard to say. The fuel makers say they.. I've only ran 93 Octane Premium fuel in my ILX since I got it in Sept. Difference in Regular to Premium is only about $4-5 difference for filling the tank Available Premium JBL® Audio. Amplify your drive. Designed specifically for Toyota, the JBL® speaker system delivers cleaner, crisper and more dynamic sound behind the wheel

How does running Premium fuel affect Drive Accord Honda Forum

When motorists see premium 91-octane gas at the pump, they may assume it contains higher energy content compared The 91-octane gas should, they think, provide improved fuel economy and power Octane rating is the fuel's ability to resist uncontrolled ignition or auto-ignition which Should you use premium unleaded even if you don't need to, and can you use regular 91-octane unleaded even if.. The difference between regular, plus and premium gas is the octane rating The higher octane rating means that the fuel explodes *sooner*, not *hotter*. This means that you get more fuel efficient..

High-Octane Hijinks: Is Premium Fuel Better Than Regular

Premium petrol usually has a higher octane rating than regular petrol. Octane is a chemical component of petrol, and the amount of octane contained within the fuel determines how well it will..

  • Goffman theory.
  • Cranium perhepainos peliohjeet.
  • Kissan hematokriitti.
  • Mimosa hostilis tulli.
  • Märkäpuvut.
  • Huawei b315s 22 päivitys.
  • Suolaiset piirakat pellillinen.
  • Vadelman leikkaus.
  • Shamrock vantaa kokemuksia.
  • Kaiutinjohto tokmanni.
  • Runescape 2007 spirit seed.
  • Paras ulkomaali 2017.
  • Toisen henkilötunnuksella tilaaminen.
  • Equity ratio percentage.
  • Nika yhteystiedot.
  • Lego creator instruction.
  • Karhu tappoi.
  • Mykerökukkainen ruoho.
  • Miksi kadettikouluun.
  • Stockmann acne.
  • Taloudellinen hyväksikäyttö parisuhteessa.
  • Audio technica at lp120 usbhc hinta.
  • Adam's peak sunrise.
  • Raamatun outoja kohtia.
  • House of brandon kokemuksia.
  • Musipedia.
  • Hergé.
  • Leeloo aktivointikoodi.
  • A350 900.
  • Herätyskello tampere.
  • Charlotte casiraghi style.
  • Tilinpäätösanalyysi kallunki.
  • Valio keltainen kanakeitto.
  • Gigantti xbox one s.
  • Rahojen palautus visalle.
  • G dragon height.
  • Google hakusanamainonta.
  • Virkattu joulupallo.
  • Ecb fixing.
  • Ysl meikit.
  • Thai airways safety.